Yokohama Foreigners’ Cemetery
aka Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery
aka Yokohama Gaijin Bochi
096, Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-0862, Japan
Telephone: +81 045 622 1311
Size: 4.5 acres
Number of interments: around 5000
Open: Weekends and national holidays between March and December, from noon to 4 p.m.
Admission: A donation of at least 200 yen is requested to aid restoration of the cemetery.
Important to know: Bad weather may close the cemetery. It was closed due to rain the day I visited. Also note that the mosquitos are fierce. You may want to invest in repellent before you visit.
Prior to 1853, Japan was a country withdrawn from the world. That isolation ended when Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay with four black-sailed ships. They delivered a letter from President Millard Fillmore demanding that the shogun government open Japanese ports to American vessels.
Perry returned the following year with seven warships to check the response. Aboard the USS Mississippi, 24-year-old marine Robert Williams fell to his death. Perry requested land that overlooked the sea for a place to bury him. The shogunate offered the grounds of Zotokuin temple. Williams was buried there briefly, before his remains were moved to Gyokusenji Temple in Shimoda.
After the port of Yokohama was opened to the West in 1859, Japanese nationalists killed Roman Mophet and Ivan Sokoloff, two Russian marines. Their grave, near the cemetery’s Meyer M. Lury Memorial Gate at the bottom of the bluff, is the oldest remaining in the cemetery. It was once a magnificent monument, according to the cemetery’s website, but only the pedestal remains.
The Japanese buried near the Zotokuin temple were removed in 1861. The Chinese buried there were removed in 1871. After it was damaged in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, the temple itself was relocated to the Heiraku neighborhood at the top of the bluff. Many of the cemetery records (although not all) were destroyed by the earthquake, so it’s not known exactly how many people are buried here. The surviving list, added to those buried since 1923, numbers about 5000 names. Almost 3000 tombstones remain standing.
One of the historically significant graves in the cemetery belongs to Charles Lennox Richardson, a British merchant who was killed by escorts of Lord Satsuma on the Tokaido Road on September 14, 1862. He and several Western friends, who had been sightseeing in Japan, refused to dismount and kneel when the Satsuma Daimyo rode by. The Japanese lord ordered his men to “chastise” the Westerners. Richardson was killed immediately, two of his friends were gravely wounded, and a third escaped to report what had happened.
Richardson’s death sparked the Anglo-Satsuma War. The British demanded that the Daimyo pay reparations and punish the murderers. When he refused, the British Royal Navy bombarded his castle and sank three of his steamships. Satsuma’s samurai climbed aboard the British ships and killed 13 sailors, but the Daimyo was impressed by Western weapons and agreed to pay the fine and execute his men.
In 1864, the cemetery was expanded from the area directly around the temple all the way to the top of the bluff. It was common in Japan for graves to be rented, but the shogunate waived that requirement and provided the land free of charge. After the Meiji government took power, its new Ministry of Foreign Affairs wrote the American, British, Dutch, and Russian consulates in 1869, announcing that the gravesites would still be provided free of charge, but the consulates must bear the cost of the cemetery’s upkeep. These consulates formed the Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery Foundation, which oversees the cemetery to this day.
Among the Westerners who changed the course of Japanese history buried in the cemetery are Edmund Morel, father of the Japanese railways; Scotsman John Diack, a railroad engineer; William Copeland, who brought beer to Japan with the Spring Valley Brewery; cartoonist Charles Wirgman; and John Reddie Black, an influential journalist. Eliza Scidmore, who brought the cherry trees to Washington DC, is also buried here.
Also in permanent residence are foreign employees of the Meiji government, missionaries, teachers, journalists, traders, ships’ crewmen, military men, bakers, photographers, botanists, and a man who revolutionized the sale of ice in Japan. The remaining gravestones record 40-some different nationalities, including as many as 120 Japanese wives of foreigners.
The little museum near the upper gate has a panel exhibit of photographs explaining the history of the foreign community in Yokohama. The museum is open daily, even when the cemetery is closed because of the weather. I’ve read that there is a pamphlet with a self-guided tour of the cemetery available for 200 yen, but I wasn’t able to get one the day I visited.
The cemetery is easily reached from Tokyo’s Shibuya Station. Take the Tokyu Toyoko line to Motomachi Chukagai Station in Yokohama. Keep taking the escalators up through the station, exit through the station gate but don’t leave the building, and then keep taking escalators up through the mall until you reach the America-Yama Park. From there, bilingual signs will lead you up the hill to the Gaijin Bochi, the Foreigner’s Cemetery.
Official history of the Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery
Financial Help Sought to Preserve the Cemetery
Essay about the Foreign Cemetery
Essay on the Anglo-Satsuma War, with a post-mortem photo of Charles Richardson
Information on the other foreign cemeteries of Yokohama
Other Japanese cemeteries on Cemetery Travel:
Aoyama Reien, Tokyo
Zoshigaya Reien, Tokyo
Hasedera Shrine, Kamakura